Glossary

You can go to any individual glossary term page below, and see any new articles below in the Related Articles section that reference that term. For example, if you want to know of any new articles that reference FDA Approval, you can bookmark the FDA approval glossary term page below. You can do the same thing with Outperform ratings from analyst ratings, indicators like the CMF, candlestick patterns like the long lower shadow, or any other term listed below. This is an extremely powerful feature.

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  • 1

  • 10-Q Report
    Form 10-Q, (also known as a 10-Q or 10Q) is a quarterly report mandated by the United States federal Securities and Exchange Commission, to be filed by publicly traded(...)
  • 10-K Report
    A Form 10-K is an annual report required by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), that gives a comprehensive summary of a company's financial performance. The(...)
  • 13F
    A filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), also known as the Information Required of Institutional Investment Managers Form. It is a quarterly filing(...)
  • 13G
    Schedule 13G is an alternative SEC filing for the 13D which must be filed by anyone who acquires ownership in a public company of more than 5% of the outstanding stock. The(...)
  • 13D
    Schedule 13D is an SEC filing that must be submitted to the US Securities and Exchange Commission within 10 days, by anyone who acquires beneficial ownership of more than 5%(...)
  • a

  • Abbreviated New Drug Application
    An Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) is an application for a U.S. generic drug approval for an existing licensed medication or approved drug. Generic drug applications(...)
  • ADC
    Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies attached to biologically active drugs. By combining the unique targeting of antibodies with the cancer-killing ability of(...)
  • AdCom
    The FDA's Advisory Committee (AdCom) are expert panelists that vote up or down on whether to recommend approval of a drug. Adcom meetings are catalyst events that move(...)
  • Adjusted Funds From Operations
    AFFO is an acronym for Adjusted Funds From Operations (AFFO). AFFO is a financial performance measurement mainly used in the analysis of REITs. The AFFO of an REIT is equal(...)
  • Adjuvant Therapy
    Adjunctive therapy, also called adjuvant therapy or adjunct therapy, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary, main, or initial therapy to maximize its(...)
  • ADX
    The average directional index, also called ADX, is used to determine if a market is trending or trading. When the ADX line is rising, the market is trending. When the ADX(...)
  • AFFO
    AFFO is an acronym for Adjusted Funds From Operations (AFFO). AFFO is a financial performance measurement mainly used in the analysis of REITs. The AFFO of an REIT is equal(...)
  • Aframax
    Aframax is a medium-sized crude tanker with a dead-weight capacity between 80,000 and 120,000 tons. The tanker derives its name from AFRA which stands for Average Freight(...)
  • Altman-Z Score
    The Altman-Z score was created by NYU Stern Finance Professor Edward Altman in 1967. The Altman Z-score is a formula that gauges the credit-strength of a company and the(...)
  • American Depositary Receipt
    ADR stands for American Depositary Receipt and is a stock that trades in U.S. markets but represents a certain number of shares in a foreign corporation. ADRs are bought and(...)
  • American Society of Hematology
    With more than 17,000 members from nearly 100 countries, the American Society of Hematology (ASH) is the world's largest professional society serving both clinicians and(...)
  • American Society of Nephrology
    The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) has over 15,000 physician and scientist members that lead the fight to prevent, treat, and cure kidney diseases throughout the world(...)
  • American Stock Exchange
    The American Stock Exchange, also called AMEX, is the third-largest stock exchange by trading volume in the United States. In 2008 it was acquired by the NYSE Euronext and(...)
  • Analyst Rating
    Analyst ratings differ from firm to firm. Below is the ratings from some of the larger, more popular firms. You don't have to memorize the ratings below. The idea is that(...)
  • Andrews Pitchfork
    The Andrews' Pitchfork is a trend channel charting tool that consists of three lines. The middle line is the median trend line and then there are two more trend lines on(...)
  • Anthrax
    An infectious disease transmitted by a bacterium in animals, which can also be transmitted to humans. Often fatal if the bacterium enters the lungs, anthrax is usually(...)
  • Antibiotic Resistance
    Antibiotic resistance is the ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to resist the effects of an antibiotic to which they were once sensitive.
  • Antibody-drug Conjugate
    Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs) are antibodies attached to biologically active drugs. By combining the unique targeting of antibodies with the cancer-killing ability of(...)
  • Antisense Therapy
    Antisense therapy involves drugs that are based on the fact that antisense RNA hybridizes with and inactivates mRNA. These drugs are short sequences of RNA that attach to(...)
  • Aroon
    The Aroon indicator is designed to reveal the beginning of a new trend. Aroon means "Dawn's Early Light" in Sanskrit. It was developed by Tushar Chande in 1995. It is made up(...)
  • ASH
    With more than 17,000 members from nearly 100 countries, the American Society of Hematology (ASH) is the world's largest professional society serving both clinicians and(...)
  • ASN
    The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) has over 15,000 physician and scientist members that lead the fight to prevent, treat, and cure kidney diseases throughout the world(...)
  • Average Directional Index
    The average directional index, also called ADX, is used to determine if a market is trending or trading. When the ADX line is rising, the market is trending. When the ADX(...)
  • Awarded
    Awarded contracts mean that a bidding system took place and that a company won, or was awarded, the job. Both government and private sector companies award business. For(...)
  • b

  • Bank of England
    The Bank of England, also called BoE, is the central bank for the United Kingdom. The BoE is the UK government's bank and the lender of last resort. It issues currency and(...)
  • Bank of Japan
    Bank of Japan, also called the BoJ, is Japan's central bank that is headquartered in the business district of Nihonbashi in Tokyo. The bank is responsible for issuing and(...)
  • Basing Pattern
    A basing pattern is a sideways move accompanied by a big drop off in volume. The volatility and beta on the stock drops below its average as the stock appears to flat-line(...)
  • Bear Market
    A bear market is when the price of an asset class, or market, declines at least 20%, over at least a two-month period.
  • Bellwether
    In stock trading, the term bellwether refers to a stock that is thought to be a leading indicator for a sector or the entire economy. As a bellwether stock goes, so goes the(...)
  • Biosimilar
    Unlike chemical medicines, biotech drugs are made from living cells so exact copies are not possible, thus the term biosimilar rather than generic as with copies of(...)
  • Black Swan
    A black swan event is an external event that shocks markets as it deviates beyond what market participants normally would expect. Black swan events are extremely difficult to(...)
  • Bollinger Bands
    Bollinger Bands are easily recognized by a pair of trading bands that represents the upper and lower trading ranges in which the stock is said to trade. Two Effective(...)
  • Book Value
    The book value of a company is the total amount a company would be worth if it liquidated its assets and paid back all its liabilities. Book value is calculated by(...)
  • Breakout
    The breakout chart pattern is my least favorite pattern because you are always chasing. Nevertheless, a breakout above resistance can be very profitable even if you are a(...)
  • Breakthrough Therapy
    A new drug may be designated as a breakthrough therapy by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) if it is intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease and(...)
  • Brent Crude
    Brent Crude is a major trading classification of sweet light crude oil that serves as a major benchmark price for purchases of oil worldwide. This grade is described as light(...)
  • Bullish Flag
    A bullish flag is a consolidation pattern with a downward slant after a strong upward move. The uptrend may continue when the stock breaks out of the consolidation zone.
  • Bullish Hammer
    A Bullish Hammer candlestick often occurs at the bottom of a trend or during a downtrend and it is called a Hammer since it is hammering out of a bottom. It has a long lower(...)
  • Burial Cross
    A Burial Cross is a bearish signal and occurs when the 50 day moving average crosses below the 200 day moving average.
  • Buy Limit
    A buy limit order is an order to buy a stock at or below a certain price. By using a buy limit order, the trader is guaranteed to pay that price or better for the stock.
  • c

  • CAGR
    The compound annual growth rate, or CAGR, is a measure of growth over more than 1 year. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment(...)
  • Call Spread
    There is a bullish call spread and a bearish call spread. A bull call spread is an options strategy that involves purchasing call options at a specific strike price(...)
  • Candle Over Candle
    A candle over candle formation, also called a candle over candle reversal, could be a Bullish Kicker: A candle over candle pattern could be a flush or oversold(...)
  • Capital Expenditure
    Capital expenditure, also called CAPEX, are funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade long-term physical assets such as property, industrial buildings, or equipment. It(...)
  • Carry Trade
    A carry trade is a strategy in which traders borrow (short) a currency in a low interest rate country, take the proceeds from the short sale and convert it to a currency in a(...)
  • Catalyst
    A stock catalyst is a press release, news story, analyst revision, or any event that can cause the price of a stock to move. Examples of common catalysts are: an earnings(...)
  • CDC
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is a federal agency that conducts and supports health promotion, prevention and preparedness activities in the United(...)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is a federal agency that conducts and supports health promotion, prevention and preparedness activities in the United(...)
  • Chaikin Money Flow
    Chaikin Money Flow (CMF) is used to measure buying and selling pressure over a set period of time via the use of money flow calculations. Money flow is calculated by(...)
  • Chicago Mercantile Exchange
    The Chicago Mercantile Exchange, also called CME, is one of the world's largest exchange for futures and options. Trading involves mostly futures on interest rates, currency,(...)
  • Chimeric Antigen Receptor
    Chimeric antigen receptor (CARs) are genetically engineered receptors on T cells. CARs are proteins that allow the T cells to recognize a specific protein (antigen) on tumor(...)
  • China Activity Proxy
    The China Activity Proxy, or CAP, was created by the London firm Capital Economics. A U.S. diplomatic cable made public by Wikileaks in 2010 revealed Chinese Premier Li(...)
  • Chinese Yuan
    The yuan is the base unit of a number of Chinese currencies, and usually refers to the primary unit of account of the renminbi, the currency of the People's Republic of(...)
  • CHMP
    The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) is the European Medicines Agency's (EMA) committee responsible for human medicines. The CHMP plays a vital role in(...)
  • Clinical Endpoint
    A clinical trial endpoint is a measure that allows the FDA to determine whether the null hypothesis of a clinical trial should be accepted or rejected. In a clinical trial,(...)
  • Clinical Trials
    A research study in which one or more human subjects are assigned to one or more interventions (which may include placebo or other control) to evaluate the effects of those(...)
  • CME
    The Chicago Mercantile Exchange, also called CME, is one of the world's largest exchange for futures and options. Trading involves mostly futures on interest rates, currency,(...)
  • CMF
    Chaikin Money Flow (CMF) is used to measure buying and selling pressure over a set period of time via the use of money flow calculations. Money flow is calculated by(...)
  • Compound Annual Growth Rate
    The compound annual growth rate, or CAGR, is a measure of growth over more than 1 year. It can be thought of as the growth rate that gets you from the initial investment(...)
  • Consumer Price Index
    The Consumer Price Index, also called CPI, is a measure of the change in the price level of a basket of goods and services purchased by consumers. The index shows the change(...)
  • Continuation Pattern
    The continuation chart pattern can lead to monster profits because these patterns continue for an extended period of time. It is one of my favorite day trading chart patterns(...)
  • Credit Derivative
    A credit derivative is a type of derivative in which the risk that a loan will not be repaid is sold to a party other than the lender. Credit default swaps are a form of(...)
  • Credit Impulse
    Credit impulse is a term coined by Michael Biggs, then an economist at Deutsche Bank, and is defined as the change in new credit issued as a percent of GDP. In most(...)
  • CRISPR
    CRISPR is an acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat. The functions of CRISPR are essential in adaptive immunity, enabling organisms to respond(...)
  • Crony Capitalism
    Crony capitalism is when private businesses receive special regulation, tax status, and other favorable government interventions at the expense of other private businesses.(...)
  • Crowding Out Effect
    The crowding out effect is when government issued debt drives down private sector spending. The U.S. Treasury sells IOUs in the form of bonds or treasury bills directly to(...)
  • Currency Devaluation
    Currency devaluation is when a country deliberately lowers the value of its currency relative to another currency, or group of currencies. Currency devaluation makes(...)
  • Currency Intervention
    A currency manipulator (also called currency intervention) is a country that employs foreign exchange policies that give it an unfair competitive advantage against its(...)
  • Current Ratio
    The current ratio measures a company's ability to pay off its short-term liabilities with its current assets. The current ratio is an important measure of liquidity because(...)
  • d

  • Dark Cloud Cover
    Dark Cloud Cover is a bearish candlestick reversal pattern. There are two candlesticks that make up this pattern: a bullish candle on day 1, a bearish candle on day(...)
  • Dark Liquidity
    A dark pool is a private exchange in large financial institutions are able to make trades anonymously.
  • Day Trading
    Day trading means buying and selling a stock within the same day, usually within minutes to hours, in an attempt to profit off of intra-day trends and intra-day swings.
  • Deadweight Loss
    Deadweight loss describes the loss to an economy as a result of market inefficiencies. Market inefficiencies occur as a result of not allowing the free market to set where(...)
  • Debt to Equity
    The debt to equity ratio compares a company's total debt to total equity. The debt to equity ratio shows the percentage of company financing that comes from creditors and(...)
  • Definitive Agreement
    A Definitive Agreement is a contract that defines the final terms of an agreement between a buyer and a seller. A Definitive Agreement is a contract that governs the terms(...)
  • Doctor Copper
    Doctor copper is the funny idea that copper has a Ph.D. in economics because of its ability to predict turning points in the global economy. Copper is widely used in(...)
  • Doji
    The doji chart pattern represents indecision by either Bulls or Bears that they can continue to take the stock either higher or lower. The doji is a favorite chart pattern to(...)
  • Double Bottom
    The Double Bottom Reversal is a bullish reversal pattern. Many Double Bottom Reversals can form in a downtrend, but until key resistance is broken (the peak between the two(...)
  • Double Top
    The Double Top chart pattern marks a tough area of resistance that Bulls failed to penetrate twice. Be-careful trading this chart pattern because the double top is not very(...)
  • Dow Jones Industrial Average
    The Dow Jones Industrial Average is a weighted stock market index of the market price of the 30 largest publicly-traded companies on the NYSE. All of these stocks are big(...)
  • Dow Theory
    Dow Theory is based on the work of Charles Dow over a century ago. It is considered the oldest stock market indicator that's still followed by a lot of traders. Dow Theory is(...)
  • Downtrend
    Downtrending stocks form lower highs and lower lows. Generally, when traders talk about downtrending stocks, they are using the longer daily and weekly time frames but do(...)
  • Dragonfly Doji
    Like all doji candlesticks, the Dragonfly doji represents indecision. Because the lower shadow is so long and the closing price is near the top of the candlestick, it signals(...)
  • Dumping (pricing policy)
    Dumping occurs when a manufacturer lowers the price of a good entering a foreign market below what it charges domestic customers. The identification of trade dumping(...)
  • Durable Goods Orders
    Durable goods orders reflect the new orders placed with domestic manufacturers for immediate and future delivery of factory hard goods. The first release, the advance,(...)
  • e

  • EBITDA
    EBITDA stands for earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization. It is calculated as: EBITDA = Revenue - Expenses (excluding tax, interest, depreciation and(...)
  • ECRI US Leading Index
    The ECRI's U.S. Weekly Leading Index is a composite leading index that anticipates cyclical turning points in U.S. economic activity by 2-3 quarters. Cycles in economic(...)
  • Effective Volume
    Effective Volume was described in the book "Value in Time" by Pascal Willain. Effective Volume analyses the intraday volume on the minute level to determine what small and(...)
  • Elasticity of Demand
    Demand elasticity is the change in quantity demanded at a particular price. If a large change in price results in little change in the quantity demanded, then demand is(...)
  • Elasticity of Supply
    Supply elasticity is the change in supply costs at a particular price. If the supply changes little with a change in price, then supplies are considered inelastic. Supply is(...)
  • Employment Situation
    The Employment Situation report is a monthly report that combines two separate surveys about the labor market. The Employment Situation report is released by the Bureau of(...)
  • EPS
    EPS stands for earnings per share. Earnings per share is considered to be the most important variable in determining a share's price. It is also a major component used in(...)
  • European Central Bank
    The European Central Bank, also called ECB, is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the Eurozone, which is one of the largest currency areas in(...)
  • European Medicines Agency
    The European Medicines Agency evaluates the safety of medicines for the benefit of public and animal health in the European Union (EU).
  • Eurozone Crisis
    The eurozone crisis, also called the European debt crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis, is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union(...)
  • Existing Home Sales
    Existing home sales add up the number of previously constructed homes, condominiums and co-ops in which a sale closed during the month. Existing homes (also known as home(...)
  • f

  • FCC
    The Federal Communications Commission, also called FCC, is a U.S. government regulatory agency, accountable to Congress, that is responsible for overseeing all interstate and(...)
  • FDA 510k Clearance
    A FDA 510k Clearance, also called a 510(k) Premarket Notification, is a premarket submission made to the FDA to demonstrate that the device to be marketed is at least as safe(...)
  • FDA Approval
    FDA stands for Food And Drug Administration. The FDA is a government agency established in 1906 with the passage of the Federal Food and Drugs Act. The FDA regulates(...)
  • Fed Funds Futures
    Virtually every financial market is affected by the Federal Reserve's benchmark interest rate, the Fed funds rate. A great way to see what the "smart money" expects(...)
  • Federal Communications Commission
    The Federal Communications Commission, also called FCC, is a U.S. government regulatory agency, accountable to Congress, that is responsible for overseeing all interstate and(...)
  • Federal Reserve
    The Federal Reserve, also called the Fed, is the central bank of the US that regulates the monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve is comprised of 12 regional(...)
  • Fibonacci Retracement
    A Fibonacci retracement is when a stock retraces 23.6%, 38.2%, 50%, or 61.8%. Fibonacci retracements use horizontal lines to indicate areas of support or resistance at the(...)
  • Foreign Exchange Market
    The foreign exchange market (forex, FX, or currency market) is a global market for the trading of currencies. The biggest players in the global foreign exchange markets are(...)
  • Form 4
    A Form 4 filing must be filed with the SEC whenever there is a change in the holdings of company insiders. An insider is defined as any officer and/or beneficial owner who is(...)
  • Form 144
    A form that must be filed with the SEC when an executive officer, director, or affiliate of a company places an order to sell that company's stock. Also known as Rule 144.
  • Form FDA 483
    Form 483 is the most common enforcement tool for all FDA-regulated products. FDA Form 483, or Inspectional Observations, are a list of observations of possible small and(...)
  • Forward P/E
    The Forward Price to Earnings Ratio is a current stock's price over its future estimated earnings per share.
  • g

  • GAAP
    GAAP is short for generally accepted accounting principles. GAAP accounting standards offer uniformity in how companies report their financial(...)
  • Game Theory
    Game theory is the study of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers. Game theory and the famous Prisoner's Dilemma model explains why,(...)
  • Gap
    A gap is a change in price levels between the close and open of two consecutive days. A gap up open occurs when the opening price is greater than the previous day's closing(...)
  • GDP
    GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product, and represents the monetary value of all goods and services produced within a country over a specified period of time. GDP is how all(...)
  • General Contractor
    A prime contractor (also called chief contractor, general contractor, or main contractor) has a contract with the owner of a project or job, and has the full responsibility(...)
  • Generic Drugs
    When a company makes a new drug, it applies for a patent that gives it exclusive rights to manufacture and distribute that drug for a certain time period. Other companies can(...)
  • Government Accountability Office
    The Government Accountability Office, also called GAO, is a government agency that monitors and audits government spending. The GAO tracks how the legislative and executive(...)
  • Gravestone Doji
    The Gravestone Doji pattern indicates a slight advantage to the Bears short-term. The long upper shadow suggests that after Bulls took the market higher, a massive amount of(...)
  • h

  • H Share
    A share of a company incorporated in the Chinese mainland that is listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange or other foreign exchange. H-shares are still regulated by Chinese(...)
  • Hedge Fund
    A hedge fund is a private investment partnership. There is a fund manager (general partner) and the investors in the hedge fund are called limited partners. The limited(...)
  • HHS
    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is part of the federal government. Its mission is to enhance and protect the well-being of all Americans by providing(...)
  • High Yield Debt
    High-yield debt refers to high-yield bonds or what is often called junk bonds. A high-yield bond is a high paying bond with a lower credit rating than investment-grade(...)
  • i

  • I2WD
    The Intelligence and Information Warfare Directorate is the Army's center for research and development of advanced cyber operations, electronic warfare, signals intelligence(...)
  • Immunotherapy
    Immunotherapy is a type of biological therapy that uses substances to stimulate or suppress the immune system to help the body fight cancer, infection, and other diseases.
  • Incremental Operating Margin
    Incremental operating margin refers to the ratio of increase in performance operating income and growth in sales at constant exchange rates.
  • Industrial Production
    The Federal Reserve's monthly index of industrial production covers manufacturing, mining, and electric and gas utilities. The industrial sector, together with construction,(...)
  • Inflation
    Inflation is an increase in the overall prices of goods and services. The relationship between inflation and interest rates is the key to understanding how indicators such as(...)
  • Insider Trading
    Insider trading is when corporate insiders (officers, directors, and employees) buy or sell shares of their company. When corporate insiders trade their own stock, they must(...)
  • Institutional Investor
    Institutional investor is a term for entities which pool money to purchase securities and other investment assets. Institutional investors include money managers, banks,(...)
  • Intelligence and Information Warfare Directorate
    The Intelligence and Information Warfare Directorate is the Army's center for research and development of advanced cyber operations, electronic warfare, signals intelligence(...)
  • Interest Rate
    An interest rate is a rate which is charged or paid for the use of money. Rising interest rates drive up the US dollar. The rising US dollar has a significant impact on the(...)
  • Interest Rate Swaps
    An interest rate swap is a derivative instrument in which two parties agree to exchange interest rate cash flows, based on a specified notional amount from a fixed rate to a(...)
  • Intermediate Term Trend
    Markets are often driven by three cyclical timeframes: short term trend, by events such as monthly options expirations; intermediate term trend, due to quarterly earnings(...)
  • International Monetary Fund
    The International Monetary Fund, also called IMF, is an international organization created for the purpose of standardizing global financial relations and exchange rates. The(...)
  • Investigational New Drug
    An Investigational New Drug Application, also called an IND, is a request for authorization from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to administer an investigational drug(...)
  • Investment Technology Group
    Investment Technology Group maintains the POSIT dark pool exchange that also provides trading algorithms and smart order routers through a subsidiary called AlterNet. POSIT(...)
  • Island
    The Island Top chart pattern can be 1 day or more. The opposite of the Island Top Chart Pattern is the Island Bottom Chart Pattern. Island chart patterns are sometimes(...)
  • ISM Manufacturing Index
    The ISM manufacturing composite index is a diffusion index calculated from five of the eleven sub-components of a monthly survey of purchasing managers at roughly 300(...)
  • j

  • January Barometer
    The January Barometer states that as the S&P 500 goes in January, so goes the year. In other words, if the month of January closes down, there is a good chance the S&P 500(...)
  • Japanese Yen
    The Japanese yen, also written as JPY, is the official currency of Japan. The yen was created in 1872, replacing the mon currency of the feudal era. The yen lost most of its(...)
  • JIDO
    The Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Organization (JIDO) supports Department of Defense Combatant Commands as part of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. It provides tactical(...)
  • Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Organization
    The Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Organization (JIDO) supports Department of Defense Combatant Commands as part of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. It provides tactical(...)
  • k

  • Keltner Channels
    Keltner Channels are named in honor of Chester Keltner who created the "10-day Moving Average Trading Rule" in his 1960 book entitled "How to Make Money in Commodities".(...)
  • l

  • Laffer Curve
    Higher taxes negatively impact the number of people willing to work as illustrated by the Laffer Curve. The marginal tax rate is measured on the vertical axis, and(...)
  • Large Cap
    A large-cap stock is a large-size company with a market capitalization (or market cap) of more than $10 billion.
  • Libor
    LIBOR stands for London Interbank Offered Rate and is a benchmark interest rates for many adjustable rate mortgages, business loans, and financial instruments traded on(...)
  • Liquidnet
    Liquidnet is a global exchange for institutional traders only. Liquidnet operates dark pools in 43 markets globally for institutional trading firms that collectively manage(...)
  • Long Shadow
    There are two types of long shadow candlestick patterns: a long lower shadow (bullish), and a long upper shadow which is bearish. A long lower shadow on a candlestick is a(...)
  • Long Term Trend
    Markets are often driven by three cyclical timeframes: short term trend, by events such as monthly options expirations; intermediate term trend, due to quarterly earnings(...)
  • Lower Shadow
    Often called a "flush", a long lower shadow on a candlestick is a capitulation move by bulls who finally are squeezed out of a stock or market. Their panic selling causes the(...)
  • m

  • Margin Debt
    Margin debt is the dollar value of securities purchased on margin within an account. The New York Stock Exchange publishes end-of-month data for margin debt on the NYX data(...)
  • Market Breadth
    Market breadth is determined by tracking the number of companies advancing (rising stock price) versus the number of companies declining (falling stock price). On(...)
  • Market Capitalization
    Market capitalization, or market cap, is the market value of a company's outstanding shares. This number is calculated by taking the stock price and multiplying it by the(...)
  • Market Order
    A market order is an order to buy or sell a stock as fast as possible at the current available price. This type of order is used when the buyer or seller wants their order(...)
  • Market Perform
    Market perform is a neutral analyst rating when a stock is expected to move in-line with the S&P 500.
  • Marketing Authorization Application
    A Marketing Authorization Application is an EU term for an application filed with the European Medicines Agency for approval to market a medicinal product.
  • Megadeal
    A Megadeal is a business transactions involving vast amounts of money, such as, mergers and acquisitions. The term megadeal is usually reserved for transactions greater than(...)
  • Mexican Peso
    The Mexican Peso, abbreviated MXN, is the currency of Mexico. The Mexican peso is made up of 100 centavos and is often presented with the symbol $ or Mex$. The name peso(...)
  • Mid Cap
    A mid-cap stock is a mid-size company with a market capitalization (or market cap) between $2 billion and $10 billion.
  • Momentum Squeeze
    A momentum squeeze is a trading strategy that gives a buy signal when the Bollinger Bands are inside the Keltner channels. When this happens, the stock has been trading in a(...)
  • Monopoly
    A monopoly is the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service. Let's examine what a monopoly is from a microeconomics perspective using a(...)
  • Monotherapy
    Monotherapy is the use of a single drug to treat a disease or disorder.
  • Multinational Corporation
    A multinational corporation (MNC) is a business managed from one (home) country, with offices, facilities, other assets in at least one country other than its home country.(...)
  • Multiple Sclerosis
    Multiple sclerosis (often called MS) involves an immune-mediated process in which an abnormal response of the body’s immune system is directed against the central nervous(...)
  • Myeloma
    Myeloma, also called multiple myeloma, is a type of blood cancer that develops from cells in the bone marrow called plasma cells. Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by(...)
  • n

  • NASDAQ
    The Nasdaq was created by the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) to enable investors to trade securities on a computerized, speedy and transparent system. It(...)
  • National Defense Authorization Act
    The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) is a US federal law specifying the budget and expenditures of the United States Department of Defense.
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence
    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom. It serves both(...)
  • NDAA
    The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) is a US federal law specifying the budget and expenditures of the United States Department of Defense.
  • Negative Interest Rate
    A negative interest rate policy (NIRP) is when a central bank sets the interest rate below zero. This is a rarely used monetary policy tool sometimes used in deflationary(...)
  • NEJM
    The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is the most widely read, cited, and influential general medical periodical in the world with more than 600,000 readers in 177(...)
  • New Drug Application
    A New Drug Application, also called a NDA, is submitted to the FDA for a new drug. Since 1938, every new drug has been the subject of an approved NDA before U.S.(...)
  • New Home Sales
    New home sales measure the number of newly constructed homes with a committed sale during the month. The level of new home sales indicates housing market trends and, in turn,(...)
  • New York Stock Exchange
    The New York Stock Exchange, also called NYSE and Big Board, is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is the(...)
  • NICE
    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom. It serves both(...)
  • o

  • Oil tanker
    Supertankers or very large crude carriers (VLCC) have a dead-weight capacity of over 250,000 tons. These ships can transport up to 2,000,000 barrels of oil/318,000 metric tons.
  • OPEC
    OPEC, which is an acronym for Organization Of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is a cartel that controls the supply of oil in an effort to control market share, and set the(...)
  • Opening Range
    The opening range breakout strategy is one of the more popular day trading strategies. The opening range breakout strategy defines a high and low price level for a certain(...)
  • Opening Range Breakout
    The opening range breakout strategy defines a high and low price level for a certain period of time, from the opening bell. The basic idea is that the direction you trade a(...)
  • Operating Expenses
    Operating expenses, also called OPEX, are expenditures incurred to engage in any activities not directly associated with the production of goods or services. These(...)
  • Orphan Drug Act of 1983
    The Orphan Drug Act of 1983 is a law passed in the United States to facilitate development of orphan drugs, drugs for rare diseases such as Huntington's Disease, myoclonus,(...)
  • Orphan Drug Designation
    The Orphan Drug Designation program provides orphan status to drugs and biologics which are defined as those intended for the safe and effective treatment, diagnosis or(...)
  • Outperform
    An analyst rating that means a stock is expected to do better than the market return of the S&P 500. Also known as "moderate buy," "accumulate" and "over-weight." Please(...)
  • Overnight Futures
    Overnight futures or S&P 500 overnight futures are the most important trading signal for traders. The CME offers two sizes of the S&P 500 contract: the standard "big" futures(...)
  • Oversold
    The oversold pattern is the best chart pattern to trade of any pattern. Many times, the Long Lower Shadow or Doji chart patterns lead to explosive gains because they are(...)
  • p

  • P Chip
    Chinese companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange which are incorporated in the Cayman Islands, Bermuda and the British Virgin Islands with operations in mainland(...)
  • P&F Descending Triple Bottom Breakdown
    The Triple Bottom Breakdown is a bearish P&F (Point and Figure) chart pattern. The pattern is characterized by three O-Columns that move lower and lower with each breakdown.(...)
  • Panamax
    Panamax is a ship having the maximum permissible dimensions (length, breadth, and draft) for transiting the Panama Canal, with a dead-weight capacity of about 75,000 tons.
  • Parabolic SAR
    The Parabolic SAR (also called Parabolic Stop and Reverse, PSAR, or just SAR) is an indicator created by Welles Wilder that uses a trailing stop and reverse method to(...)
  • PDUFA
    Biotech traders do not want dead money sitting in a low volume, sideways trading stock and so biotech traders use catalysts. Biotech investing relies heavily on catalyst(...)
  • PEG
    The PEG ratio is a company's price to earnings (P/E) ratio divided by the growth rate of its earnings over a specific future time period. Value and growth investors are more(...)
  • Penny Stock
    The SEC defines a penny stock as a stock that trades for less than $5, and therefore is highly speculative. These types of stocks are risky and highly speculative because(...)
  • People's Bank of China
    The People's Bank of China is the central bank of the People's Republic of China with the power to control monetary policy and regulate financial institutions in mainland(...)
  • Personal Income
    Personal Income refers to the income that persons receive in return for their provision of labor, land, and capital used in current production, plus current transfer receipts(...)
  • Petrodollar
    A notional unit of currency earned by a country from the export of petroleum (i.e. "Petrodollars are pouring into Saudia Arabia"). In 1973, in an effort to maintain(...)
  • Philadelphia Fed Report
    A monthly survey, produced by the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, which questions manufacturers on general business conditions within the Philadelphia Federal Reserve(...)
  • Pip
    Pip stands for percentage in points, and is the smallest price change that a given exchange rate can make. Most major currency pairs are displayed to four decimal places so(...)
  • Placebo-controlled study
    Placebo-controlled testing is done by giving one group a fake "placebo" treatment while giving the other group the treatment that is being evaluated. The outcomes of the(...)
  • Pocket Pivot
    A Pocket Pivot is a price/volume accumulation pattern. A Pocket Pivot occurs when price moves up with volume higher than the maximum down volume registered in the previous 10(...)
  • Polytherapy
    Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication to treat a disease or disorder.
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a disorder that develops in some people who have experienced a shocking, scary, or dangerous event. People who have PTSD may feel(...)
  • Price Control
    A price control (or a price ceiling) occurs when the government puts a legal limit on how high the price of a product can be. For a price control to be effective, it must be(...)
  • Price to Book Ratio
    The price to book ratio measures a company's market price in relation to its book value. This ratio gives value investors an idea of whether they are paying too much(...)
  • Price to Earnings
    Price to earnings, also called P/E, is a ratio used in valuation research of a company that measures its current share price relative to its earnings per share. The(...)
  • Private Equity Firms
    Private Equity, also called PE, is a source of investment capital from high net worth individuals and institutions for the purpose of investing and acquiring equity ownership(...)
  • Profit Margin
    The profit margin measures the amount of net income earned with each dollar of sales generated by comparing the net income and net sales of a company. The profit margin ratio(...)
  • Progression-free Survival
    Progression-free survival, also called PFS, is the length of time during and after the treatment of a disease, such as cancer, that a patient lives with the disease but it(...)
  • Psoriatic Arthritis
    Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritis that affects some people who have psoriasis. Joint pain, stiffness and swelling are the main symptoms of psoriatic(...)
  • PTSD
    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a disorder that develops in some people who have experienced a shocking, scary, or dangerous event. People who have PTSD may feel(...)
  • q

  • Quick Ratio
    The quick ratio (also called acid test ratio) measures the ability of a business to pay its current liabilities when they come due with only quick assets. Quick assets are(...)
  • Quiet Period
    The quiet period is a legally mandated period of time following a company's IPO when the company and brokerage firms that underwrote the IPO are prohibited from promoting the(...)
  • r

  • Real Estate Investment Trust
    REIT is an acronym for Real Estate Investment Trust. An REIT is a company that owns or finances income-producing real estate. REITs pay out all of their taxable income as(...)
  • Real Personal Consumption Expenditures
    Personal consumption expenditures, also called PCE, is a measure of consumer spending on goods and services. It accounts for about two-thirds of domestic final spending, and(...)
  • Recession
    A recession is a period (lasting longer than a few months) of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity contract, generally identified by negative(...)
  • Red Chip
    Stocks of mainland China companies incorporated outside mainland China and listed in Hong Kong.
  • REIT
    REIT is an acronym for Real Estate Investment Trust. An REIT is a company that owns or finances income-producing real estate. REITs pay out all of their taxable income as(...)
  • Rent Control
    Rent control is governmental control and regulation of the amounts charged for rental housing. Rent controls hurt the local economy and make rental unit availability worse.(...)
  • Resurrection Cross
    A Resurrection Cross is a bullish signal and occurs when the 50 day moving average crosses above the 200 day moving average.
  • Retail Sales
    Retail sales measure the total receipts at stores that sell merchandise and related services to consumers. Sales are by retail and food services stores. Consumer spending(...)
  • Return On Assets
    Return on assets (ROA) ratio measures the net income produced by total assets during a period by comparing net income to total assets. The return on assets ratio(...)
  • Return On Equity
    Return on equity (ROE) ratio measures the ability of a company to generate profits from its shareholders investments in the company. The return on equity ratio shows how much(...)
  • Revenue
    Revenue (also called top line or gross income) is the income a business receives during a specific period of time before costs or expenses are deducted. Traders like(...)
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system, which normally protects its health by attacking foreign substances like bacteria and viruses,(...)
  • RSI
    The RSI stands for the relative strength index and is used by traders to determine when a stock is overbought or oversold. The RSI compares the magnitude of recent swing move(...)
  • Rumors
    News traders often buy a stock on rumor, and sell it when the actual news breaks. This allows a trader to position before a stock pops higher from a news announcement. The(...)
  • Russell 2000 Index
    The Russell 2000 Index is a small-cap stock market index that tracks the performance of 2,000 small-cap stocks in the Russell 3000 index. The Russell 2000 is the most common(...)
  • s

  • S&P 500
    Stands for Standard & Poor's 500. The S&P 500 index was created in 1957. It is a basket of 500 stocks that are considered to be widely held. The 500 stocks are chosen for(...)
  • Same-store Sales
    Same-store sales, also called comparable store sales or just comps, is a metric used to determine what amount of sales growth is attributable to new store openings (open for(...)
  • Santa Claus Rally
    The Santa Claus Rally is the yearly surge in the price of stocks that often occurs in the week between Christmas and New Year's Day.
  • Sector Rotation
    Sector rotation is the movement or rotation of capital from one asset type to another in order to take advantage of current market conditions. Sector rotation occurs in(...)
  • Securities And Exchange Commission
    The Securities And Exchange Commission, also called SEC, is a government commission created in the 1930s by Congress to regulate the securities markets and protect investors.(...)
  • Shooting Star
    The Shooting Star is a bearish candlestick pattern characterized by a small body, long upper shadow and small or nonexistent lower shadow. The size of the upper shadow should(...)
  • Short Selling
    Short selling is a bet a stock or market will go down. Short selling is the sale of a security that the seller has borrowed on margin. The short seller believes that the(...)
  • Short Squeeze
    A short squeeze can occur when the shares short as a percentage of float exceeds 10%, and the days to cover is greater than 3. A catalyst event causes a rapid increase in the(...)
  • Short Term Trend
    Markets are often driven by three cyclical timeframes: short term trend, by events such as monthly options expirations; intermediate term trend, due to quarterly earnings(...)
  • Small Cap
    A small-cap stock is a small-size company with a market capitalization (or market cap) between $300 million and $2 billion.
  • SNS
    The Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) is the United States' national repository of antibiotics, vaccines, chemical antidotes, antitoxins, and other critical medical(...)
  • Stem Cell
    A stem cell is one of the human body's master cells, with the ability to grow into any other cell type.
  • Sticky CPI
    The Sticky Price CPI sorts the components of the consumer price index (CPI) into either flexible or sticky categories based on the frequency of their price adjustments. A(...)
  • Stock dilution
    Stock dilution occurs when more shares are added to the pool of stock (outstanding shares) that is already trading in the open market. You can think of it like how the U.S.(...)
  • Stock Screener
    Stock screeners are used to rapidly search thousands of stocks in order to filter and output a handful of stocks for further research. Chartmill is an example of an excellent(...)
  • Stop Limit
    A stop limit order is an order placed that combines the features of a stop order with those of a limit order. A stop limit order will be executed at a certain price (or(...)
  • Stop Loss
    A stop loss order becomes a market order when a stock sells at or below the specified stop price.
  • Strategic Alternatives
    Strategic alternatives is a buzz word for news catalyst and rumor stock traders. Business environments are highly uncertain and executives need to be innovative and flexible(...)
  • Strategic National Stockpile
    The Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) is the United States' national repository of antibiotics, vaccines, chemical antidotes, antitoxins, and other critical medical(...)
  • Strong Buy
    An analyst rating that means one should buy a specific security. Also known as buy and "on the recommended list", or "conviction buy list". This is the most bullish analyst(...)
  • Subsidy
    A subsidy monies usually paid by a government to keep the price of a product or service low or to help a business or organization to continue to function. A subsidy is(...)
  • Suezmax
    Suezmax is a mid-sized cargo ship having the maximum permissible dimensions (length, breadth, and draft) for transiting the Suez Canal, with a dead-weight capacity of between(...)
  • Supplemental New Drug Application
    Supplemental New Drug Application, also called a sNDA, is an application submitted to the FDA for an already approved NDA for any changes in packaging, labeling, dosages,(...)
  • Swing Trading
    Swing trading is any stock play where the hold time is between 1 and 5 days and the goal is to profit from a "swing" move up or down. The most common pattern that swing(...)
  • t

  • Tariff and Quotas
    A tariff is a tax or duty to be paid on a particular class of imports or exports. A quota is a limit on the quantity of a particular product that under government controls(...)
  • The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use
    The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) is the European Medicines Agency's (EMA) committee responsible for human medicines. The CHMP plays a vital role in(...)
  • The New England Journal of Medicine
    The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is the most widely read, cited, and influential general medical periodical in the world with more than 600,000 readers in 177(...)
  • Three White Soldiers
    Three White Soldiers, also called Three Advancing White Soldiers, is a bullish candlestick pattern that often signals a reversal of the current downtrend. This pattern(...)
  • Tick
    The Tick is an indicator for the NYSE that measures the number of stock issues trading on an up tick versus a down tick. An uptick of +1 is a buy order, and a downtick of -1(...)
  • Tier 1 Firm
    A Tier 1 firm in stock trading is generally a top firm with decent market share and reputation. Sometimes market information is put forth, and the trading firm wants to(...)
  • Trade Deficit
    A trade deficit is an amount by which the cost of a country's imports exceeds the value of its exports. In 2001 China joined the World Trade Organization and began(...)
  • Trending
    Trending stocks are stocks that form a series of higher lows and higher highs, or lower lows and lower highs. Big buyers, such as institutional traders, money managers, and(...)
  • Triangle
    Triangle patterns are commonly found in stock charts. The pattern derives its name from the fact that it is characterized by a contraction in price range and converging(...)
  • Triple Top
    The Triple Top chart pattern is really demoralizing for Bulls. It means that a level of resistance is so tough, that Bulls tried not once, not twice, but three times to break(...)
  • True Strength Index
    TSI stands for True Strength Index and was created by William Blau and introduced in Stocks & Commodities Magazine. The True Strength Index (TSI) is a momentum oscillator(...)
  • Twiggs Money Flow
    The Twiggs Money Flow was created by Colin Twiggs and is a derivative of the Chaikin Money Flow indicator. Twiggs Money Flow signals breakouts and provides useful trend(...)
  • u

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is part of the federal government. Its mission is to enhance and protect the well-being of all Americans by providing(...)
  • U6 Unemployment Rate
    U-6 adds all workers marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons as a percent of the civilian labor force. In other(...)
  • Underperform
    An analyst rating that means a stock is expected to do worse than the market return of the S&P 500. Also known as "moderate sell," "weak hold", and "under-weight." This is a(...)
  • Upper Shadow
    A long upper shadow on a candlestick suggests that the stock got too expensive, and within minutes to a few hours, profit takers and short sellers have driven the stock back(...)
  • Uptrend
    Uptrending stocks form higher highs and higher lows. Generally, when traders talk about uptrending stocks, they are using the longer daily and weekly time frames but do know(...)
  • v

  • Valuation
    Valuation is the process of estimating what a stock is worth and if it is trading at a discount, fair price, or is very pricey. Common metrics to determine a stock's value(...)
  • VIX
    VIX is the ticker symbol for the CBOE Volatility Index. The VIX is a measure of the implied volatility for the next 30 days on the S&P 500. The VIX is calculated using both(...)
  • VLCC
    Supertankers or very large crude carriers (VLCC) have a dead-weight capacity of over 250,000 tons. These ships can transport up to 2,000,000 barrels of oil/318,000 metric tons.
  • w

  • Watch List
    A watch list is a group of stocks, usually 100 or more, that a trader is watching in order to time an entry on. Watch listing is a more in-depth strategy than just adding a(...)
  • West Texas Intermediate
    WTI stands for West Texas Intermediate, which is a light sweet grade of crude oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing. This grade is described as light because of its(...)
  • Whipsaw
    A whipsaw, also called a headfake, occurs when a stock, market, or indicator signals a break in one direction, but the market quickly moves in the opposite direction.(...)
  • y

  • Yield Curve
    The yield curve, also called the term structure of interest rates, is a graph that plots the yields of similar-quality bonds against their maturities, ranging from shortest(...)
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Lance Jepsen

For ethical purposes, I try not to hold any position in any stock I profile on GuerillaStockTrading.com unless specifically stated in the article. Owner of GuerillaStockTrading.com. Seasoned entrepreneur, investor, and writer. I love God, family, country, stock trading, economics, and helping people learn how to trade.
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