A currency manipulator (also called currency intervention) is a country that employs foreign exchange policies that give it an unfair competitive advantage against its international trading partners.

The criteria to determine whether a country is using unfair currency practices are: a trade surplus of larger than $20 billion, or 0.1 percent of GDP; a trade surplus with most countries that is more than 3 percent of that country’s GDP; “persistent one-sided intervention,” defined as purchases of foreign currency amounting to more than 2 percent of the country’s GDP in a one-year period.

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